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WhoWhatWhy runs Larry Hancock’s essay on Hillary Clinton’s Benghazi hearing

WhoWhatWhy, the investigative reporting site led by Russ Baker, ran an essay by Larry Hancock on the futility of Hillary Clinton’s Benghazi hearing. Hancock is the author of Surprise Attack: From Pearl Harbor to 9/11 to Benghazi.


October 23, 2015

Welcome to the Circus — Hillary and the Benghazi Committee

The underlying story of Benghazi is one that cannot and will not be talked about in any open session of Congress. This means that Thursday’s hearing featuring former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was nothing but an exercise in futility.

It is the story of a covert CIA operation that was operating from a separate facility in the Benghazi compound that was simply known as the “Annex.” Some two dozen CIA case officers, analysts, translators and special staff were a part of this operation and its security was provided by CIA Global Response Staff (GRS), who had entered the country under diplomatic cover.

The CIA’s mission included arms interdiction — attempting to stop the flow of Soviet-era weapons to Central Africa — and very possibly the organization of Libyan arms shipments to vetted insurgent groups on the ground in Syria.

There is also evidence that the mission was working in concert with military personnel from the Joint Special Operations Group Trans-Sahara. At the time of the attack, an unarmed American surveillance drone was in flight over the territory east of Benghazi and Trans-Sahara military personnel were stationed in the Libyan capital of Tripoli.

In contrast, the State Department’s special diplomatic mission facility, classified as “temporary,” was minimally staffed with a rotating series of State Department officers sent to and from Tripoli.

US Ambassador Christopher Stevens had not been in Benghazi for a year. When he arrived for a short stay in September 2012, only a single diplomatic officer was present there, and that officer rotated back to Tripoli upon the ambassador’s arrival. Stevens was accompanied by a communications officer and a handful of Diplomatic Service Security staff. The security personnel provided protection for the ambassador during his travels and meetings in the city. His presence was intended to be extremely low key, but it was exposed in the local media shortly after his arrival.


Asking Clinton to justify maintaining the State Department temporary mission in the face of a worsening security situation is fruitless, given its actual function as a clandestine national security mission cover.

Questioning Clinton about that role would be as meaningless as questioning senior CIA personnel about operational information. Such missions cannot be publicly acknowledged or discussed, and revealing anything about them is strictly prohibited.

The same national security laws constraining State Department and CIA personnel also prevent lawmakers, other than those on select intelligence committees, from being briefed on such missions. And even those privileged individuals could not raise related questions in public — or even in closed sessions that include committee members or staff without the appropriate clearances.

In addition, querying Clinton about her involvement in the immediate response to the attacks is also pointless. The Secretary of State has no legal or operational role in a military response to a diplomatic facility attack. Only National Command Authority (president/secretary of defense) can order a foreign military intervention. The State Department does have Foreign Emergency Support Teams (FEST), composed of personnel from multiple agencies and maintained on alert to respond to crisis. But the FEST teams have no military elements and are dispatched only in the aftermath of a crisis, when the security situation allows. Following an attack their role is damage assessment and recovery.

Earlier investigations have already documented that President Obama ordered a military response immediately upon word reaching Washington. They showed as well that the AFRICOM commander responded to that order right away, directing deployment of the closest military quick reaction units — units which were on station in Spain, training in Eastern Europe, or back in the United States.

There were no armed American aircraft or naval units close enough to respond during the attack, those assets were in operation in Afghanistan, Iraq and around the Horn of Africa in Somalia and Yemen.


As for the well-equipped paramilitary operatives at the CIA station, according to their own statements, they were initially held back by the CIA station chief — as they had been in other incidents. And the station chief was, in turn, acting under his directive to let local militia groups respond. That practice was intended to maintain the station’s covert profile. Unfortunately, it was not consistent with providing any real time defense for the State Department compound.

Given all of the above, it is clear why the hearing quickly turned into a game of “pin the tail on the donkey.” As Democrats have claimed all along — and some Republicans have recently admitted — the committee’s work is mostly about beating up a political adversary and not at all about advancing the security of American diplomats abroad.

Larry Hancock

Larry_HancockLARRY HANCOCK is considered one of the top investigative researchers in the areas of intelligence and national security. He is the author of four books, including Nexus: The CIA and Political Assassination, and coauthor of The Awful Grace of God, a study of religious terrorism, white supremacy, and the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. Hancock’s books have received endorsements and praise from former House Select Committee on Investigations staff members and the former Joint Historian for the State Department and Central Intelligence Agency. He lives in Oklahoma.



He is the author of:

Surprise Attack: From Pearl Harbor to 9/11 to Benghazi
Shadow Warfare: The History of America’s Undeclared Wars
The Awful Grace of God: Religious Terrorism, White Supremacy, and the Unsolved Murder of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Savage Liberty


The fifth installation of Eliot Pattison’s Bone Rattler series follows the exiled Scotsman Duncan McCallum to the stepping-stones of the American Revolution

Acclaimed author Eliot Pattison continues his Bone Rattler series as Duncan McCallum is drawn into dark intrigue surrounding the Sons of Liberty in this gripping thriller set in the early days of the American revolution.

Pattison’s deep historical knowledge and attention to detail brings a young America to life, immersing the reader in the atmosphere and events that were to lead to the American rebellion. Protagonist Duncan McCallum is lead into a mystery of murder, treachery, and intrigue with Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and a secret society of American patriots organizing to resist the British throne.

About the Author

ELIOT PATTISON is the author of The Skull Mantra, winner of an Edgar Award and finalist for the Gold Dagger, Water Touching StoneBone MountainBeautiful GhostsPrayer of the DragonBone RattlerThe Lord of DeathEye of the Raven and most recently Original Death. Pattison resides in rural Pennsylvania with his wife, three children, two horses, and two dogs on a colonial-era farm.


Praise for Bone Rattler

The Last of the Mohicans meets Braveheart, with a curious dash of CSI.” —Entertainment Weekly

“Pattison’s moving characters, intricate plot and masterful evocation of the time, including sensitive depictions of the effects of the European war on Native Americans, set this leagues beyond most historicals and augur well for future entries in this series.”—Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“[A] sure winner.” —Booklist

“Having already won an Edgar for his Inspector Shan series (The Skull Mantra, etc.), Pattison makes a strong bid for another with this outstanding mystery set in colonial America. Scottish prisoner Duncan McCallum, indentured to the Ramsey Company, is troubled by a series of mysterious deaths on the ship carrying him to the New World. When McCallum’s close friend Adam Munroe and a professor who was to work as a tutor are added to the list of the dead, McCallum, who has extensive medical training, is enlisted by the captain to investigate. The shipboard mysteries remain unresolved when they arrive in New York, and McCallum’s quest for the truth leads him to perilous encounters on both sides of the French and Indian War. Pattison’s moving characters, intricate plot and masterful evocation of the time, including sensitive depictions of the effects of the European war on Native Americans, set this leagues beyond most historicals and augur well for future entries in this series.” —Publishers Weekly

“Dark, complex and compelling in mystery, historical, and spiritual considerations. ” —Eileen Charbonneau, Historical Novels Review

Praise for Eye of the Raven

“Few writers can combine history and mystery as well as Edgar-winner Pattison… Evocative language, tight plotting, and memorable characters make this a standout.” —Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“The pleasures of Eliot Pattison’s books, and Eye of the Raven is another smashing example, are threefold: high adventure in perilous landscapes, a hero stubbornly seeking the truth, and the haunting mysteries of ancient cultures.” —Otto Penzler, editor of The Vampire Archives

“Throughout the novel Pattison superbly builds tension and explores a period of shifting and uncertain alliances and loyalties. A thoroughly gripping read.” —Margaret Barr, Historical Novel Society

“Pattison, acclaimed for previous novels such as the excellent The Skull Mantra and Bone Rattler, reveals the complex negotiations between the well-known British and French governments but also the Iroquois tribes regarding the land and resources in the Pennsylvania region. He wisely chooses not to create caricatures of any nationality, but instead shows the difficulties the wise leaders of each group have in maneuvering through the greed and baser instincts found everywhere.” —Bonnye Busbice Good, New Mystery Reader

Praise for Original Death

“If this were a movie, we’d marvel at the set decoration that splendidly evokes the period. The excellent prose narrative goes right to the matter in question, the state of the (pre-Colonial) human heart.” —Chicago Tribune

Original Death sweeps the reader along on a compelling and suspenseful hero’s journey in which the realms of the spirit world of the Iroquois mingle with the harsh world of the colonial era frontier and the military ambitions of the French and English colonial powers. Pattison’s riveting storytelling and intriguing plot kept me entranced from the first page. His understanding of the complexities of the era and the frontier make his portrayal of Duncan’s and Conawago’s quest a multi-layered and complex read, one to savor. It fascinates and comes very highly recommended.” —Historical Novel Society

“Edgar-winner Pattison combines action, period details, and a whodunit with ease in his impressive third mystery set in Colonial America. The French and Indian War is in its sixth year in 1760, and the American wilderness is full of armed men lusting to soak the land in blood for the sake of distant kings… The quest gets off to an ominous start with McCallum’s discovery of a dead soldier tied to a wheel at the bottom of a lake. As the bodies pile up, Pattison pays tribute to the conventions of the murder mystery without sacrificing excitement or a nuanced look at the final stage of the war between the British and the French for control of North America.” —Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“Pattison twists a skein of plotlines and weaves Indian mysticism into a time-capsule portrait of America at a crossroads: a time of endings for some and the beginning of a revolution played out by cruel, compelling, and sometimes powerful people with warring visions. Themes of disillusionment and a vanishing way of life make this series in some ways similar to Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, though Pattison adds an element of psychological suspense comparable to Jean Zimmerman’s The Orphanmaster (2012) and a degree of human complexity that suggests Sarah Donati’s Wilderness novels.” —Booklist (starred review)

“This is the kind of historical fiction that makes for breathtaking reading. Pattison has done an admirable job of researching a little known incident in the history of the Lehigh Valley in Pennsylvania where the Moravians had several missions and transferred that story to upstate New York. In doing so he turned that historical incident into both a thrilling entertainment and a modern day look at the intolerance and brutality of the military. One cannot help but draw parallels to the violence of US military perpetrated against Islamic civilians whether aggressive and intentional or accidental victims of ‘friendly fire’ in Afghanistan and Iraq.” —Pretty Sinister Books

“As strong as the plot is, it is the elegantly crafted prose, almost lyrical in the way it weaves the story, that will draw readers in. Original Death is exciting and suspenseful, often mystical and frequently cruel and violent, but always true to the characters. One of the best books of the year.” —Mysterious Reviews

Praise for Blood of the Oak

“In 1765, the French and Indian War is over, but the American colonies are not at peace, as shown in Edgar-winner Pattison’s superior fourth mystery featuring Scottish ex-pat Duncan McCallum (after 2013’s Original Death)… Pattison does a brilliant job of showing how political events at this time paved the way for the start of the Revolutionary War.” —Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“The fourth in Pattison’s Bone Rattler series combines well-drawn fictional and historical personages in a vivid portrayal of a pivotal year in American history. Historical mystery as its best.” —Booklist (starred review)

“The fourth entry in the Bone Rattler series, this stand-alone novel is fast-paced with loads of action and suspense. Duncan McCallum and the supporting cast are well-formed and credible for the time period, and they provide an excellent backdrop to this exciting era of American history. Well-researched, the novel presents aspects of the early colonial experience that are little discussed outside the Northeast. I highly recommend this novel and look forward to future books from this author.” —Historical Novel Society

“The fourth installment in Pattison’s Bone Rattler series is another complexly plotted historical mystery written in a baroque style highly suggestive of the period and unblinking in its portrayal of American history’s dark lessons.” —Kirkus Reviews

“Eliot Pattison’s novels have a way of waking the reader up to the grim realities of what really went on during Colonial American times, both the heroic and the barbaric… [This] is another masterpiece of America historic fiction and a really bone-rattling mystery thriller.” —Mystery Maven

“Pattison’s deep strength is in his gift of in-life autopsy of the human mind and soul. He lines up, chapter upon chapter, the forces that Duncan must face in a new way — or lose himself in the process. So, this one’s a little less of a clue-based mystery, but instead a powerful book of transition: for Duncan, from naive to knowing; for his friends, from tribal loyalty to spiritual search; and for the settlers and their gatherings, from ruled colonies to something that dares to whisper: Independence. There must be a sequel already in the works; I’m looking forward to watching Pattison carry this striking and passionate narrative into the explosions that will forge the American Revolution — and Duncan McCallum’s fate.” —Kingdom Books

Blood of the Oak makes an excellent conclusion to an intriguing, thought provoking, action-packed, and very violent series.” —Bookloons

Killing King


Uncovering previously unknown FBI files and sources, as well as new forensics, the authors of America’s Secret Jihad convincingly make the case that Martin Luther King was assassinated by a clear and long simmering conspiracy orchestrated by the racial terrorists who were responsible for the Mississippi Burning murders.

This explosive book details the long-simmering effort by a group of the nation’s most violent racial terrorists to kill Martin Luther King. Killing King convincingly makes the case that while James Earl Ray was part of the assassination plot to kill King, the preponderance of evidence also demonstrates a clear and well-orchestrated conspiracy.

Thoroughly researched and impeccably documented, the book reveals a network of racist militants led by Sam Bowers, head of the White Knight of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, who were dedicated to the cause of killing King. The White Knights were formed in the cauldron of anti-integrationist resistance that was Mississippi in the early 1960s and were responsible for more than 300 separate acts of violence, including the infamous Mississippi Burning murders. The authors have located previously unknown FBI files and sources which detail the bounty offer as well as new forensics information regarding unmatched fingerprints and an audio recording of an admission that a key suspect obtained a weapon to be used in killing King.

For years Americans have debated issues with this crime. With Killing King we are ever closer to an accurate understanding of how and why Dr. King was killed.

About the Author

STUART WEXLER has long been considered one of the top investigative researchers in domestic terrorism and radical religious activities. His books include Awful Grace of God and America’s Secret Jihad. His groundbreaking work on forensics and historical crimes has been featured on NBC News and in the Boston Globe, Newsweek/Daily Beast, USA Today, Mississippi Clarion-Ledger. He now lives and teaches in New Jersey where he won the prestigious James Madison Teachers’ Fellowship in 2010.

LARRY HANCOCK is considered one of the top investigative researchers in the areas of intelligence and national security. He is the author of four books, including Shadow Warfare and Surprise Attack. Hancock’s books have received endorsements and praise from former House Select Committee on Investigations staff members and the former Joint Historian for the State Department and Central Intelligence Agency. He lives in Oklahoma.


Praise for The Awful Grace of God

“A timely study.” —Kirkus Reviews

“A step in the [right] direction of a better understanding of a national tragedy.” —Booklist

Praise for America’s Secret Jihad

“[Wexler] convincingly makes the case that America has been victimized by significant domestic terrorism for over half a century… He links atrocities familiar (the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995) and less so (attacks on synagogues in the South during the 1950s) to paint a disturbing picture with practical implications for the War on Terror… Wexler’s deliberate and critical review of the evidence is also likely to prompt reconsideration of the possibility of wider conspiracies behind Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination and the Atlanta child murders of 1979–1981.” —Publishers Weekly (starred review)

“An impassioned investigative report tracing a deeply religious theme to the spate of civil rights violence from the 1950s until today. With urgency and zeal… Wexler carefully differentiates the religiously motivated extremists from the merely white supremacists… [A] compelling study.” —Kirkus Reviews

“[T]his book is a fascinating attempt to see beyond conventional narratives and reveal an overlooked facet of religious terrorism.” —Library Journal

“Stuart Wexler has done a wonderful service to those ignorant of the fact that Islamic fundamentalism does not own the copyright on terrorism. By shining light on religious terrorism in the U.S., Wexler shows us that human nature is capable of the most vile acts when ignorance and extremism is allowed to flourish.” —Tigre Hill, director of The Shame of a City

“Stuart Wexler’s brilliant new book is a major contribution to recent American history. On one level he provides the first coherent overview of a dangerous white anti-Semitic insurrectionary movement in the last half of the 1900s. He shows for example how this movement’s sizable bounty offer is probably a key to the assassination of Martin Luther King. Just as importantly, Wexler analyzes the FBI’s dilemmas in breaking this movement, between acting too soon (and failing to assemble a winnable case) and acting too late (allowing a crime to occur). A similar dilemma arises from the FBI’s reliance on informants, protection of whom has encouraged a distorted prosecution of movement terrorists as loners. Wexler’s analysis throws important new light on the Birmingham Church bombing of 1963, the King assassination, and the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995. Both the research in this book (much of it his own) and Wexler’s insightful interpretations set a new standard for future scholars in this important field.” —Peter Dale Scott, author of The American Deep State: Wall Street, Big Oil, and the Attack on U.S. Democracy

Surprise Attack


Surprise Attack explores sixty plus years of military and terror threats against the United States. It examines the intelligence tools and practices that provided warnings of those attacks and evaluates the United States’ responses, both in preparedness – and most importantly – the effectiveness of our military and national command authority.

Contrary to common claims, the historical record now shows that warnings, often very solid warnings, have preceded almost all such attacks, both domestic and international. Intelligence practices developed early in the Cold War, along with intelligence collection techniques have consistently produced accurate warnings for our national security decision makers. Surprise Attack traces the evolution and application of those practices and explores why such warnings have often failed to either interdict or intercept actual attacks.

Going beyond warnings, Surprise Attack explores the real world performance of the nation’s military and civilian command and control history – exposing disconnects in the chain of command, failures of command and control and fundamental performance issues with national command authority.

America has faced an ongoing series of threats, from the attacks on Hawaii and the Philippines in 1941, through the crises and confrontations of the Cold War, global attacks on American personnel and facilities to the contemporary violence of jihadi terrorism. With a detailed study of those threats, the attacks related to them, and America’s response, a picture of what works – and what doesn’t – emerges. The attacks have been tragic and we see the defensive preparations and response often ineffective. Yet lessons can be learned from the experience; Surprise Attack represents a comprehensive effort to identify and document those lessons.

About the Author

LARRY HANCOCK is considered one of the top investigative researchers in the areas of intelligence and national security. He is the author of four books, including Nexus: The CIA and Political Assassination, and coauthor of The Awful Grace of God, a study of religious terrorism, white supremacy, and the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. Hancock’s books have received endorsements and praise from former House Select Committee of Investigations staff members and the former Joint Historian for the State Department and Central Intelligence Agency. He lives in Oklahoma.


“In clear and detailed writing, the author focuses on the widespread American command and control networks that examine strategic/national and tactical/local intelligence… An important topic for everyone to comprehend, as the threat of a new attack is constant, both from home-grown extremists as well as foreign groups.” —Library Journal Starred Review

“A valuable examination of U.S. national security crises past and present… A timely, pertinent study emphasizing the fact that when it comes to military or terrorist attacks, ‘there are always be warnings.’” —Kirkus

“Ample warnings preceded Pearl Harbor and every subsequent attack on U.S. soil and U.S. forces, writes Hancock, a veteran national security journalist… He is not shy about suggesting improvements, but admits that since American leaders may never get their act together, more surprises are likely in store.” —Publishers Weekly 

Shadow Warfare


Contrary to their contemporary image, deniable covert operations are not something new. Such activities have been ordered by every president and every administration since World War II. Clandestine operations have often relied on surrogates, with American personnel involved only at a distance, insulated by layers of deniability.

Shadow Warfare traces the evolution of these covert operations, detailing the tactics and tools used from the Truman era through those of the Obama administration. It also explores the personalities and careers of many of the most noted shadow warriors of the past sixty years, tracing the decades-long relationship between the CIA and the military.

Shadow Warfare offers a balanced, non-polemic exploration of American concealed warfare, detailing its patterns, consequences, and collateral damage, and presenting its successes as well as its failures. Hancock and Wexler explore why every president, from Franklin Roosevelt on, felt compelled to turn to secret, deniable military action. It also delves into the political dynamic of the president’s relationship with Congress, and the fact that despite decades of warfare, Congress has chosen not to exercise its responsibility to declare a single state of war—even for extended and highly visible combat.

About the Author

LARRY HANCOCK is considered one of the top investigative researchers in the areas of intelligence and national security. He is the author of four books, including Nexus: The CIA and Political Assassination, and coauthor of The Awful Grace of God, a study of religious terrorism, white supremacy, and the murder of Martin Luther King Jr. Hancock’s books have received endorsements and praise from former House Select Committee of Investigations staff members and the former Joint Historian for the State Department and Central Intelligence Agency. He lives in Oklahoma.

STUART WEXLER is coauthor of The Awful Grace of God. His work has been featured in the The Boston Globe, USA Today, and on NBC News. Wexler’s work on forensics and historical crimes helped win him a national award from the American Statistical Association in 2008. He lives in New Jersey.


“[A] comprehensive, well-researched, and up-to-date analysis of U.S. shadow warfare.” —Publishers Weekly

The Bones of the Earth


In this graceful collection, Howard Mansfield looks anew at the New England region he’s called home for over twenty years. He studies the beautiful stonework of granite bridges with a local expert; contemplates the deserted second and third storeys of the old mercantile buildings that populate New England’s towns and cities; and considers the cemeteries and roadside shrines that punctuate the landscape. Each exploratory adventure is written with Mansfield’s typical wit and passion in prose so smooth that the deeper questions he raises appear with startling poignancy. How do our local landmarks narrate the past? What is history? Should we-can we-preserve its artifacts for the future? A kind of elegy for the built environment and dying customs of New England life, these essays will challenge anyone’s notions of home, history, and the future that jeopardizes both.

About the Author

HOWARD MANSFIELD is the author of numerous books, including Skylark, Cosmopolis, and In the Memory House, praised as “wise and beautiful” by the New York Times Book Review. His essays and articles on history and architecture have appeared in the Los Angeles Times, Christian Science Monitor, Doubletake, Orion, and Newsday, among others. He lives in Hancock, New Hampshire, with his wife, writer Sy Montgomery.



“Several essays in The Bones of the Earth… belong in an anthology as prose models illustrating the technique of proceeding from the particular to the universal. Textbook publishers, take note.” —World Literature Today

“In witty essays that recall both Thoreau’s Walden and Roland Barthes’ Mythologies, Mansfield ruminates on American history by unpacking our connection to the landscape.” —Utne Magazine

“[C]onnoisseurs of seeing the world in an oyster, or even a small state, will savor Mansfield’s style.” —Booklist

“Howard Mansfield has never written an uninteresting or dull sentence. All of his books are emotionally and intellectually nourishing. He is something like a cultural psychologist along with being a first-class cultural historian. He is humane, witty, bright-minded, and rigorously intelligent.” —Guy Davenport, author of The Death of Picasso


Howard Mansfield

HOWARD MANSFIELD is the author of numerous books, including Skylark, Cosmopolis, and In the Memory House, praised as “wise and beautiful” by The New York Times Book Review. His essays and articles on history and architecture have appeared in the Los Angeles Times, Christian Science Monitor, Doubletake, Orion, and Newsday, among others. He lives in Hancock, New Hampshire, with his wife, writer Sy Montgomery.

He is the author of:

The Bones of the Earth

The Awful Grace of God


The Awful Grace of God chronicles a multi-year effort to kill Martin Luther King Jr. by a group of the nation’s most violent right-wing extremists. Impeccably researched and thoroughly documented, this examines figures like Sam Bowers, head of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, responsible for more than three hundred separate acts of violence in Mississippi alone; J.B. Stoner, who ran an organization that the California attorney general said was “more active and dangerous than any other ultra-right organization;” and Reverend Wesley Swift, a religious demagogue who inspired two generations of violent extremists.

United in a holy cause to kill King, this network of racist militants were the likely culprits behind James Earl Ray and King’s assassination in Memphis on April 4th, 1968.

King would be their ultimate prize—a symbolic figure whose assassination could foment an apocalypse that would usher in their Kingdom of God, a racially “pure” white world.

Hancock and Wexler have sifted through thousands of pages of declassified and never-before-released law enforcement files on the King murder, conducted dozens of interviews with figures of the period, and re-examined information from several recent cold case investigations. Their study reveals a terrorist network never before described in contemporary history. They have unearthed data that was unavailable to congressional investigators and used new data-mining techniques to extend the investigation begun by the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

The Awful Grace of God offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date study of the King assassination and presents a roadmap for future investigation.

About the Author

STUART WEXLER was born and raised in New Jersey. He graduated from Tulane University with a degree in history. He now lives and teaches high school in New Jersey, where he won the prestigious James Madison Teachers’ Fellowship in 2010.

LARRY HANCOCK was raised in Oklahoma and graduated from the University of New Mexico with a triple major in anthropology, history, and education. He has worked on a variety of historical research projects, including November Patriots and Someone Would Have Talked. He lives in Oklahoma.


“A timely study.” —Kirkus

“A step in the [right] direction of a better understanding of a national tragedy.” —Booklist




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Grace, Arthur
Gray, Charlotte
Greene, Granville
Greenwald, Jeff
Griffin, Susan
Griffiths, Jay
Grudin, Robert


Haenel, Yannick
Hamburger, Philip
Hamilton, Lisa M.
Hammett, Dashiell
Hancock, Larry
Hansen, Tom
Hart, John
Hartshorn, Peter
Hass, Robert
Hauser, Thomas
Hawkes, David
Haxton, Brooks
Hay, Elizabeth
Helferich, Gerard
Hemmi, Yo
Hersh, Burton
Hester, Colin
Hill, A.W.
Hill, Geoffrey
Hinton, David
Hjortsberg, William
Hobhouse, Henry
Holbert, Bruce
Holland, Noy
Hollis, Edward
Holroyd, Michael
Honig, Lucy
Hooper, Judith
Hooper, Meredith
Horack, Skip
Hugo-Bader, Jacek
Hummel, Maria
Hunt, Terry


Ivey, Bill


Jablonski, Noria
Jackson, Wes
Jacobs, Michael
Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer
Johnson, Dana
Johnson, Shelton
Jones, Louis B.
Jordan, Teresa
Journey, Anna


Kals, W.S., and Soles, Clyde
Kawabata, Yasunari

Kawakami, Hiromi
Hirsch, Alan
Keeler, Greg
Keller, William W.
Keys, Bobby
Kinder, R. M.
Kinnell, Galway
Kirschenmann, Fred
Klein, Rachel
Kline, David
Knapp, Caroline
Kneale, Matthew
Koch, Stephen
Kurumatani, Choukitsu


Lacouture, Jean
Lambert, Craig
Lamott, Anne
Lancelotta, Victoria
Lappin, Elena
Larsen, Eric
Leader, Darian
Leavitt, David
Lebling, Robert
Lenney, Dinah
Leonard, Peter
Lesser, Wendy
Lewis, Peter
Linney, Romulus
Lipo, Carl
Livers, Paulette
Logan, Alton with Falbaum, Berl
Lord, Nancy
Loren, B.K.
Lourie, Bruce


MacDonald, D.R.
MacIntyre, Linden
MacLean, Harry N.
MacLean, John N.
Maggio, Theresa
Maitland, Sara
Maloy, Kate
Malusa, Jim
Mander, Jerry
Mansfield, Howard
Markson, David
Marquart, Debra
Martinson, Deborah
Maso, Carole
Matsuura, Thersa
Matthiessen, Peter
May, Molly Caro
McCarthy, Tom
McClanahan, Ed
McClatchy, J.D.

McCollom, James
McEnroe, Kevin
McGlynn, David
McGoogan, Ken
McNally, Dennis
McNally, John
McPhee, Jenny
McWilliams, James
Melman, Peter C
Menzel, Peter
Merwin, W. S.
Mewshaw, Michael
Michaels, Anne
Middlebrook, Diane
Millet, Lydia
Mitchell, John H.
Mitchell, Mark
Miura, Tetsuo
Moore, Kathleen Dean
Morgan, Bill
Moss, Sarah
Murch, Walter
Murgia, Michela
Murphy, Bernadette
Murphy, Susan
Muscatine, Doris


Naess, Arne
Neely, Nick 
Nelson, Jessica Hendry
Newton, Tim
Nightingale, Steven
Nixon, Cornelia
Nova, Craig


Oakes, Kaya
O’Brien, Geoffrey
O’Donnell, Helen
O’Keeffe, Paul
Ollestad, Norman
Olsen, Lance
O’Reilly, Terry


Padel, Ruth
Pallis, Marco
Palmer, Chris
Pancake, Ann
Patterson, Victoria
Pattison, Eliot
Paul, Jasmine
Pauvert, Olivier
Pavelich, Matt
Pears, Tim
Perks, Micah
Pevear, Richard
Phillips, Scott
Pine, Red
Pitt, Leonard
Pohrt, Tom
Porter, Bill
Potluri, Annapurna
Powell, Allison M.
Power, Nani
Pritchett, Laura
Pyle, Robert Michael
Pyne, Daniel



Raine, Kathleen
Rakow, Mary

Rawle, Graham
Reardon, Joan
Reardon, Lisa
Redel, Victoria
Reece, Erik
Reich, Tova
Pelisek, Christine
Reynolds, Barbara
Richter, Stacey
Ricketts, Angela
Robison, Mary
Rock, Peter
Rooney, Kathleen
Roorbach, Bill
Rorem, Ned
Rosen, Michael
Rosenberg, David
Rosner, Elizabeth
Ross, Lillian
Roszak, Theodore
Rough, Bonnie J.
Rowell, Galen
Royes, Pamela


Sackville, Amy
Salter, James
Samuels, David
Sanders, Barry
Sarkar, Saral
Savoy, Lauret
Sayre, Nora
Schaller, George B.
Scheeres, Julia
Schelling, Andrew
Schwartz, Lynne S.
Scroggins, Mark
Seligman, Craig
Selvin, Joel
Selzer, Richard
Sexton, Linda G.
Sexton, Margaret Wilkerson
Shah-Kazemi, Reza
Shearer, Cynthia
Sheck, Laurie
Sheehan, Daniel
Sherman, Joe
Sherman, Susan
Shirk, Adrian
Shriver, Lionel
Shuker, Carl
Sifry, Micah L.
Silber, Joan
Singular, Stephen and Joyce
Sjoholm, Barbara
Sledge, Michael
Smith, Graeme
Smith, Janna M.
Smith, Page
Smith, Rick
Snidow, Neal
Snyder, Gary
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr
Sonnenberg, Ben
Spiller, Nancy
Spurling, Hilary
Srodes, James
Standridge, Dana
Stanford, Peter
Steele, Jonathan
Steele, Pamela
Stegner, Page
Stegner, Wallace
Steinbeck, Thomas
Steiner, Robert
Stirling, Isabel
Strom, Dao
Stuckey, Priscilla
Sucher, Dorothy
Svoboda, Therese
Szczeklik, Andrzej


Tamm, Eric E.
Tanenbaum, Leora
Taylor, Timothy
Teran, Boston
Thompson, Jerry
Thoreau, Henry D.
Thyre, Sarah
Tilin, Andrew
Todd, Janet
Toews, Miriam
Towler, Katherine
Troy, Judy
Trueblood, Valerie
Turney, Chris


Urquhart, Thomas
Urrutia, Benjamin


Van Horne, Janice
Vandenburgh, Jane
Verdon, John
Vidal, Gore
Von der Lippe, Angela
Vonnegut, Laureen


Waddell, Norman
Waldron, Lamar
Walker, Casey
Wallace, David Rains
Walsh, Robb
Warner, Sylvia Townsend
Waterman, Laura
Weiss, Andrea
Weschler, Lawrence
West, John
Westbury, Chris F.
Wexler, Stuart
Winters, John J. 
Wise, Sarah
White, Courtney
Wilkins, Joe
Wilson, Rebecca
Wilson, Robert
Winik, Marion
Winter, Kathleen
Wirzba, Norman
Woiwode, Larry
Wollheim, Richard
Woolfson, Esther



Yoshimoto, Banana
Yoshizawa, Katsuhiro


Zemeckis, Leslie
Zimmerman, Anne